METROLOGY ME 503 Lectures : 3 Year : II Tutorial : 0 Part : I Practical : 1.5

Course Objective:

To make students understand the concept, principles and purposes of Metrology in Engineering Production. To make them familiar with the principles, construction, application of various measuring instruments, basic concept on principles, methods of various measurements, standards, standardization and standardizing organizations, fundamentals of quality control.

 1. Introduction to Metrology (1 hour) 1.1 Concept and Scope of Metrology 1.2 Objectives of Metrology 1.3 Legal Metrology 1.4 Dynamic Metrology 1.5 Deterministic metrology 1.6 Methods of Measurements 1.7 Units of Measurements 1.8 General Metrological Terms: Accuracy. Precision, Repeatability, Reproducibility, Sensitivity, Resolution, Stability, Readability, Calibration 2. Errors in measurement (2 hours)

2.1Types and Sources of Errors in Measurement

2.2Error Propagation

2.3Effects of Averaging Results

2.4Method of Least Squares

2.5Related problems on Error and Uncertainty Measurement,

2.6Averaging Results and Method of Least Squares

3.Standards, Standardization, Standardizing Organizations (3 hours)

3.1Standards of Measurement

3.2Classification of Standards

3.3Traceability and Hierachy of Standards

3.4Level of Standardization – Company Standardization, International Standardization

3.5Formulation and Implementation of Standards

3.6ISO 9000

3.7National and International Organisations concerning Metrology(Formation, Duties and Responsibilities) – Nepal

 4 Linear Measurement (3 hours)

4.1Instruments for Linear Measurements (types, principles, applications, limitations and errors)

4.1.1Vernier Calliper

4.1.2External Micrometer

4.1.3Internal Micrometer

4.1.4Depth Micrometer

4.1.5Vernier Height Gauge

4.1.6Vernier depth Gauge

4.1.7Slip Gauges

4.1.8Dial Indicators

4.1.9Combination Set

 5. Angular and Taper Measurement (3 hours) 5.1 Instruments for Angular Measurements, types, principles, applications, imitations and errors 5.1.1 Bevel Protractors 5.1.2 Sine Bar 5.1.3 Sine Table 5.1.4 Sine Centre 5.1.5 Angle Gauges 5.1.6 Spirit Level 5.1.7 Clinometers 5.1.8 Auto-collimator 5.1.9 Angle Dekkor 5.2 Gauges for Taper Shafts 5.3 Measurement for Taper Shafts and Holes
 6. Surface Measurement (1 hour) 6.1 Instruments for Surface Measurements , types, principles, applications, limitations and errors 6.1.1 Straight Edge 6.1.2 Surface Plate
 7. Comparators (2 hours) 7.1 Basic Principle of Measurement 7.2 Classification of Comparators 7.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Types of Comparators 8. Interferometry (3 hours) 8.1 Interference of light 8.2 Interferomery Applied to Flatness Testing 8.3 Flatness Interferometer 8.4 Length Interferometer 8.5 Related problems on Flatness Testing by Interferometry 9. Limits, Fits and Tolerances (8 hours)

9.1Basic Terminology related to Limits, Fits and Tolerances

9.2System of Writing Tolerances- Unilateral and Bilateral Tolerances

9.3System of Fits – Hole Basis System and Shaft Basis System

9.4Types of Fits – Interference, Transition and Clearance Fits

9.5ISO system of Limits and Fits

9.6Selection and calculation of Fits and Tolerances

9.7Interchangeable Assembly

9.8Selective Assembly

9.9Fits and Tolerances of Ball and Roller Bearings, Screw Threads, Key Joints, and Backlash Tolerances for Spur Gears

9.10Gauges

9.10.1Classification of Plain Gauges

9.10.2Taylor’s Theory for Gauge Design

9.10.3Gauge Design of Workshop Gauge, Inspection Gauge and General Gauge

9.10.4Gauges for Tapers

9.10.5Related problems on Limits, Fits and Tolerances. Selective Assembly and Gauge Design

 10. Measurement of Surface Finish (3 hours)

10.1Effect of Surface Finish on Fatigue Life, Bearing Properties, Wear, Stress, Corrosion, Fit

10.2Elements of Surface Texture

10.3Analysis of Surface Traces

10.4Factors affecting Surface finish and roughness

10.5Methods of Measuring Surface Finish

10.6Related problems on Surface Roughness Measurement

 11. Gear measurement (2 hours)

11.1Gear Tooth Terminology(Review)

11.2Measurement and Testing of Spur Gears

11.2.1Tooth Thickness Measurement

11.2.2Pitch Measurement

11.2.3Tooth Bearing Contact Testing

11.2.4Composite Method of Gear Testing

 12. Measurement of Screw Threads (4 hours)

12.3Effects of Pitch Errors

12.4Measurement of Major, Minor and Effective Diameters of Thread

12.5Calculation of Best Wire Size

12.6Measurement of Pitch

 13. Machine Tool Metrology (2 hours)

13.1Alignment or Geometrical Tests of Machine Tool

13.2Tests for Level of Installation

13.3Spindle Tests

13.4Tests for Straightness, Flatness and Squareness

 14. Measuring machines (2 hours)

14.1Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)

14.2End Bar Measuring Machine

14.3Universal Measuring Machine

14.4Computer Controlled Coordinate Measuring Machine

 15. Quality Control Management (6 hours)

15.1Quality, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, Total Quality Control. Total Quality Management

15.2Statistical Quality Control in Engineering Production – Process Variability, Process Capability, Control Charts Sampling Inspection

15.3Sampling Plan

15.4Related problems on Statistical Quality Control (Standard Deviation, Normal Distribution, Probability, Control charts)

Practical:

1.Linear and Angular Measurement

3.Surface Finish Measurement

4.Study on the Effect of Cutting Variables on Surface Roughness

5.Machine Tool Alignment Test

6.Compound Error Measurement

7.Statistical Quality Control

8.Determination of Spoilage Percentage by the Area of Distribution Curve

9.Statistical Process Control

References

1.R. K. Jain, “Engineering Metrology”, Khanna Publishers.

2.J. F. W. Gayler and C. R. Shotbolt, “Metrology for Engineers”, Cassell, London. SI Edition.

3.Manohar Mahajan, “A Text book of Metrology”, Dhanapat Rai & Co. (P) Ltd., Delhi,

4.R. K. Rajput, “Engineering Metrology and Instrumentation”, S. K. Kataria and Sons, Delhi.

5.Publications from Nepal Bureau of Standards and Metrology (NBSM).

Evaluation Scheme

The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:

 Unit Chapter Topics Marks 1 1, 2, 3 & 4 all 16 2 5, 6, 7 & 8 all 16 3 9 all 16 4 10, 11 & 12 all 16 5 13, 14 & 15 all 16 Total 80
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